Social Inclusion - Main Users / Purpose
|Governments, line ministries, bi- and multilateral development organizations, NGOs, CBOs.|
Usually, exclusion is based on social identity (gender, ethnicity, caste, age, geographic region, economic status, etc.). People may be born into an excluded group or become excluded due to changes of circumstances (e.g. migration) and chronic process (e.g. poverty and unemployment). As much as individuals have different, overlapping, reinforcing and even contesting social identities, they are also entrenched in multiple levels of in- and exclusion according to the context that determines identities as privileged and others as deprived. Thus, we usually face a complex potential for privilege or deprivation. The concept of social inclusion should, therefore, not be conceptualized in a binary logic; that one is either included or excluded, nor that inclusion per se is good, or exclusion per se is bad. Rather, it should be seen that people are included or excluded in relation to different variables and the processes of in- and exclusion, these, are best recognized as a continuum with in- and exclusion at its poles. Social exclusion itself may have manifold characteristics. It can take place
Due to the multidimensional facets and processes that lead to social exclusion, deprived groups can’t be identified by only a single criterion. Additional qualifications, criteria and further questions are essential, whether integration or inclusion is always desirable and how inclusion of ones may produce exclusion of others. For practitioners it is indispensable to thoroughly assess the context and to design the interventions appropriately. This method provides some guidance on this crucial task.
b) Designing interventions that directly address social exclusion as a recognized socioeconomic development constraint
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