Participatory Appraisal of Competitive Advantage (PACA ®) - References

files/images_static/suitcase.jpg Frequently updated information and literature about PACA is available in English and Spanish Langauge on the Internet at:

Cunningham, Shawn: Learning from PACA implementation in South Africa. GTZ March 2004.

Helmsing, A. J. H. (2001): Partnerships, Meso-institutions and Learning. New local and regional economic development initiatives in Latin America. The Hague: Institute of Social Studies (mimeo).

Meyer-Stamer, Jörg (1999): Strategien lokaler / regionaler Entwicklung: Cluster, Standortpolitik und systemische Wettbewerbsfähigkeit. Nord- Süd aktuell, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 447-460.

Meyer-Stamer, Jörg (2002a): Current Challenges for Local Economic Development in South Africa: Experience from Mpumalanga. Duisburg: mimeo (

Meyer-Stamer, Jörg (2003a): Participatory Appraisal of Competitive Advantage (PACA): Launching LocalEconomic Development Initiatives. Duisburg: mesopartner Working Paper, 1.

Meyer-Stamer, Jörg (2003b): Organising the Key Elements of Local Economic Development: The Hexagon Concept. Duisburg: mesopartner Working Paper, 3.

Meyer-Stamer, Jörg (2003c): Why is Local Economic Development so difficult? Duisburg: mesopartner Working Paper, 4.

Meyer-Stamer, Jörg (2004): PACA- Participatory Appraisal of Competitive Advantage. Manual Version 5.0, July 2004.

Mintzberg, Henry (1987): 5 Ps for Strategy. California Management Review, Fall.

Mintzberg, Henry (1994): Rethinking Strategic Planning. Part I: Pitfalls and Fallacies. Long Range Planning, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 12 - 21.

Mintzberg, Henry (1994): Rethinking Strategic Planning. Part II: New Roles for Planners. Long Range Planning, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 22 - 30.

Porter, Michael (1995): The Competitive Advantage of the Inner City. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 73, No. 3, pp. 55-71.

Porter, Michael (1996): What is strategy? Harvard Business Review, Vol. 74, No. 6, pp. 61-78.

Schmitz, Hubert (ed., 2003): Local Enterprises in the Global Economy: Issues of Governance and Upgrading. Aldershot: Elgar.

Vázquez-Barquero, Antonio (2002): Endogenous Development. Networking, innovation, institutions and cities. London: Routledge.